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Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts

Richard E. Klabunde, PhD


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Abnormal Cardiac Rhythm Tutorial

The following tutorial assumes the student is already knowledgeable of the content associated with the cardiac electrophysiology tutorial. The student is encouraged to go not only to the initial link associated with each tutorial question but also to use embedded hyperlinks to expand upon the physiological concepts associated with the question.

Quiz Questions Linked to Tutorial

At the end of the tutorial, there is a link to an external website ( that has multiple choice and true/false questions that are associated with the tutorial. When the quiz results are given to the user after taking the quiz, links are provided back to specific pages to assist in learning. Users will need to register (free) on the site to access the quiz questions for the tutorial. No personal information is available to other than the user provided login name and analysis of user performance on the quiz questions. This feedback will improve content and quiz questions.


  1. What are arrhythmias?
  2. Define each of the following arrhythmias:
    1. sinus rhythm
    2. sinus bradycardia
    3. sinus tachycardia
    4. sick sinus syndrome
    5. atrial tachycardia
    6. atrial flutter
    7. atrial fibrillation
    8. junctional escape rhythm
    9. AV nodal blocks - first, second and third degree
    10. supraventricular tachycardia
    11. ventricular premature beat
    12. ventricular tachycardia
    13. ventricular flutter
    14. ventricular fibrillation
  3. How can altered automaticity and conduction cause arrhythmias?
  4. What are early- and delayed-afterdepolarizations and what can cause them?
  5. What are ectopic foci?
  6. Under what conditions and by what mechanisms can a non-pacemaker cell become a pacemaker cell?
  7. What are reentry currents, how can they lead to tachyarrhythmias, and how can changes in conduction velocity and the relative refractory period either precipitate or abolish reentry currents?
  8. What are the hemodynamic consequences of arrhythmias?

Link to Quiz Questions:

Revised 01/31/2023

DISCLAIMER: These materials are for educational purposes only, and are not a source of medical decision-making advice.