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Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts

Richard E. Klabunde, PhD


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Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts textbook cover

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Cardiac Valve Disease Tutorial

The following tutorial assumes that the student is already knowledgeable of the content associated with the cardiac function tutorial. The student is encouraged to go not only to the initial link associated with each tutorial question, but also to use embedded hyperlinks to expand upon the physiological concepts associated with the question.

Quiz Questions Linked to Tutorial

At the end of the tutorial, there is a link to an external website ( that has multiple choice and true/false questions that are associated with the tutorial. When the quiz results are given to the user after taking the quiz, links are provided back to specific pages to assist learning. Users will need to register (free) on the site to access the quiz questions for the tutorial. No personal information is available to other than the user provided login name and analysis of user performance on the quiz questions. This feedback will improve content and quiz questions.


  1. What are murmurs, and what produces the audible sounds?
  2. What is the difference between a stenotic valve and insufficient valve?
  3. What valve defects are associated with systolic and diastolic murmurs?
  4. What is Poiseuille's equation and how does it relate to the pressure gradient across a valve?
  5. What is turbulent flow and how does it differ from laminar flow?
  6. How is turbulence associated with valve disease related to flow velocity, valve orifice area, and blood viscosity?
  7. What is the effect of exercise (increased cardiac output) on the pressure gradient across a stenotic valve?
  8. How are cardiac pressures and volumes during the cardiac cycle altered by valve stenosis and insufficiency (regurgitation)?
  9. How are left ventricular pressure-volume loops altered by aortic stenosis, mitral stenosis, aortic regurgitation, and mitral regurgitation?
  10. What valve defects can increase left atrial and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, and what is the consequence of elevating this pressure?
  11. How can valve defects lead to reduced exercise capacity and exertional dyspnea?

Link to Quiz Questions:

Revised  01/31/2023

DISCLAIMER: These materials are for educational purposes only, and are not a source of medical decision-making advice.