Heart Model
Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts Richard E. Klabunde, PhD

Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts 3e textbook cover Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts, 3rd edition textbook, Published by Wolters Kluwer (2021)

CNormal and Abnormal Blood Pressure, Physiology, Pathophysiology and Treatment book cover Normal and Abnormal Blood Pressure, published by Richard E. Klabunde (2013)

Guided Learning: Cardiac Valve Disease

Guided learning questions provide a systematic approach to learning by using a sequencing of the questions similar to how a topic would unfold in a traditional textbook. These guided learning questions assume the student is already knowledgeable of the content associated with the cardiac function guided learning topic. The student is encouraged to go not only to the initial link associated with each learning question, but also to use embedded hyperlinks to expand upon the physiological concepts associated with the question.

At the end of the guided learning questions, there is a link to an external website (testmoz.com) that has multiple choice and true/false questions that are associated with the topic. When the quiz results are given to the user after taking the quiz, links are provided back to specific cvphysiology.com pages to assist in learning. Users need to register (free) on the testmoz.com site to access the quiz questions for the tutorial. No personal information is available to cvphysiology.com apart from the user provided login name and analysis of user performance on the quiz questions. This feedback is used to improve cvphysiology.com content and quiz questions.

Guided Learning

  1. What are murmurs, and what produces the audible sounds?
  2. What is the difference between a stenotic valve and insufficient valve?
  3. What valve defects are associated with systolic and diastolic murmurs?
  4. What is Poiseuille's equation, and how does it relate to the pressure gradient across a valve?
  5. What is turbulent flow, and how does it differ from laminar flow?
  6. How is turbulence associated with valve disease related to flow velocity, valve orifice area, and blood viscosity?
  7. What is the effect of exercise (increased cardiac output) on the pressure gradient across a stenotic valve?
  8. How are cardiac pressures and volumes during the cardiac cycle altered by valve stenosis and insufficiency (regurgitation)?
  9. How are left ventricular pressure-volume loops altered by aortic stenosis, mitral stenosis, aortic regurgitation, and mitral regurgitation?
  10. What valve defects can increase left atrial and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, and what is the consequence of elevating this pressure?
  11. How can valve defects lead to reduced exercise capacity and exertional dyspnea?

Link to Quiz Questions: testmoz.com/2479853

Revised 10/06/2023

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