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Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts

Richard E. Klabunde, PhD


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Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts 3e textbook cover

Click here for information on Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts, 3rd edition, a textbook published by Wolters Kluwer (2021)

Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts textbook cover

Click here for information on Normal and Abnormal Blood Pressure, a textbook published by Richard E. Klabunde (2013)


Peripheral Arterial Disease Tutorial

The following tutorial assumes that the student is already knowledgeable of the content associated with the hemodynamics tutorial and the blood flow regulation tutorial. The student is encouraged to go not only to the initial link associated with each tutorial question but also to use embedded hyperlinks to expand upon the physiological concepts associated with the question.

Quiz Questions Linked to Tutorial

At the end of the tutorial, there is a link to an external website ( that has multiple choice and true/false questions that are associated with the tutorial. When the quiz results are given to the user after taking the quiz, links are provided back to specific pages to assist in learning. Users will need to register (free) on the site to access the quiz questions for the tutorial. No personal information is available to other than the user provided login name and analysis of user performance on the quiz questions. This feedback will improve content and quiz questions.


  1. What is the relationship between pressure, flow and resistance under laminar flow conditions and how is this relationship altered by turbulent flow?
  2. How do changes in vessel radius alter single vessel resistance?
  3. What is a "critical stenosis" and why are large reductions in vascular radius required to reduce resting and maximal distal flows?
  4. How does the arterial anatomy of the leg affect the distribution of flow and pressure within the leg?
  5. What are the hemodynamic consequences of single and multiple stenotic lesions in the leg?
  6. Why might resting blood flows within a limb be normal despite significant proximal stenotic lesions?
  7. How do autoregulation of blood flow and vascular collateralization affect resting and maximal blood flow within the leg?
  8. What is active hyperemia and what mechanisms may be responsible for this phenomenon?
  9. What is the ankle pressure index? What is its normal value and under what conditions will this index fall during exercise and post-exercise?
  10. What is the hemodynamic basis of "vascular steal?"
  11. What is "intermittent claudication?"

Link to Quiz Questions:

Revised  01/31/2023

DISCLAIMER: These materials are for educational purposes only, and are not a source of medical decision-making advice.