Heart Model
Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts Richard E. Klabunde, PhD

Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts 3e textbook cover Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts, 3rd edition textbook, Published by Wolters Kluwer (2021)

CNormal and Abnormal Blood Pressure, Physiology, Pathophysiology and Treatment book cover Normal and Abnormal Blood Pressure, published by Richard E. Klabunde (2013)

Guided Learning: Cardiac Function

Guided learning questions provide a systematic approach to learning by using a sequencing of the questions similar to how a topic would unfold in a traditional textbook. The student is encouraged to go not only to the initial link associated with each tutorial question, but also to use embedded hyperlinks to expand upon the physiological concepts associated with the question.

At the end of the guided learning questions, there is a link to an external website (testmoz.com) that has multiple choice and true/false questions that are associated with the topic. When the quiz results are given to the user after taking the quiz, links are provided back to specific cvphysiology.com pages to assist learning. Users need to register (free) on the testmoz.com site to access the quiz questions for the tutorial. No personal information is available to cvphysiology.com apart from the user provided login name and analysis of user performance on the quiz questions. This feedback is used to improve cvphysiology.com content and quiz questions.

Guided Learning

  1. Describe the anatomy of the heart, including cardiac chambers and valves, and the great vessels entering and leaving the heart.
  2. What determines cardiac output, and how is it measured?
  3. What are the seven phases of the cardiac cycle, and how is each phase related temporally to the electrocardiogram?
  4. What changes occur in ventricular and atrial pressures, ventricular volume, and aortic pressure and flow during the cardiac cycle?
  5. Why is the pressure gradient across a valve normally very low (just a few mmHg)?
  6. When during the cardiac cycle are the first (S1), second (S2), third (S3) and fourth (S4) heart sounds heard, and what causes these sounds?
  7. What are ventricular pressure-volume loops, and how are they generated?
  8. What is preload on a cardiac chamber, and what determines preload?
  9. What is the length-tension relationship for cardiac muscle, and how do changes in preload affect this relationship?
  10. Explain using Frank-Starling curves and ventricular pressure-volume loops how changes in preload influence ventricular stroke volume.
  11. What is the afterload on the left ventricle, and what determines the afterload?
  12. Explain using force-velocity curves how changes in afterload alter ventricular stroke volume.
  13. How do changes in afterload modify Frank-Starling curves and ventricular pressure-volume loops?
  14. What is inotropy and what factors regulate inotropy?
  15. How do changes in inotropy alter the length-tension relationship, Frank-Starling curves and ventricular pressure-volume loops?
  16. Describe the interdependent effects of changes in preload, afterload and inotropy on left ventricular pressure-volume loops.
  17. What is the structure and function of actin, myosin and regulatory proteins within the cardiac muscle sarcomere?
  18. What is the process of excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac muscle, and at what sites in the cell is this process regulated?
  19. What are the major signal transduction mechanisms involved in regulating inotropy?
  20. What are the primary adrenergic and cholinergic receptors that regulate cardiac function?

Link to Quiz Questions: testmoz.com/2479877

Revised 10/06/2023

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