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Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts

Richard E. Klabunde, PhD


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Coronary Artery Disease Tutorial

The following tutorial assumes the student is already knowledgeable of the content associated with the hemodynamics tutorial, the oxygen exchange tutorial, and the blood flow tutorial. The student is encouraged to go not only to the initial link associated with each tutorial question but also to use embedded hyperlinks to expand upon the physiological concepts associated with the question.

Quiz Questions Linked to Tutorial

At the end of the tutorial, there is a link to an external website ( that has multiple choice and true/false questions that are associated with the tutorial. When the quiz results are given to the user after taking the quiz, links are provided back to specific pages to assist learning. Users will need to register (free) on the site to access the quiz questions for the tutorial. No personal information is available to other than the user provided login name and analysis of user performance on the quiz questions. This feedback will improve content and quiz questions.


  1. What is the anatomy and distribution of major coronary vessels that supply blood flow to the myocardium?
  2. Define ischemia and hypoxia.
  3. How does a decrease in the myocardial oxygen supply/demand ratio lead to myocardial hypoxia?
  4. What is a critical stenosis and its hemodynamic basis?
  5. How does flow autoregulation partially compensate for coronary stenosis?
  6. What is coronary vascular steal and its hemodynamic basis?
  7. Define each of the following and state the underlying cause: chronic stable angina, Prinzmetal's (variant) angina, unstable angina, and myocardial infarction.
  8. What is the role of endothelial dysfunction, particularly regarding nitric oxide production/bioavailability, in coronary artery disease and myocardial ischemia?
  9. How does myocardial hypoxia alter electrical and mechanical function?

Link to Quiz Questions:

Revised  01/31/2023

DISCLAIMER: These materials are for educational purposes only, and are not a source of medical decision-making advice.