Heart Model
Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts Richard E. Klabunde, PhD

Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts 3e textbook cover Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts, 3rd edition textbook, Published by Wolters Kluwer (2021)

CNormal and Abnormal Blood Pressure, Physiology, Pathophysiology and Treatment book cover Normal and Abnormal Blood Pressure, published by Richard E. Klabunde (2013)



Hypoxemia, or reduced oxygen in the blood, can be caused by:

  1. Low partial pressure of atmospheric oxygen (e.g., high altitudes)
  2. Inadequate pulmonary ventilation (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)
  3. Carbon monoxide poisoning
  4. Reduced hemoglobin content in erythrocytes
  5. Decreased hematocrit


Revised 01/29/2023


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