Cardiac Electrophysiology Tutorial
This tutorial provides a systematic approach to learning by using a sequence that is similar to how this topic would unfold in a traditional textbook. The student is encouraged to go not only to the initial link associated with each tutorial question, but also to use embedded hyperlinks to expand upon the physiological concepts associated with the question.
NEW FEATURE: Quiz Questions Linked to Tutorials
At the end of the tutorial, there is a link to an external website (quizegg.com) that has multiple choice and true/false questions that are associated with the tutorial. When the quiz results are given to the user after taking the quiz, links are provided back to specific cvphysiology.com pages to assist learning. Users will need to register (free) on the quizegg.com site to access the quiz questions for the tutorial. No personal information is available to cvphysiology.com other than the user provided login name and analysis of user performance on the quiz questions. This feedback will be used to improve cvphysiology.com content and quiz questions.
- What are the normal concentrations of sodium, potassium, and calcium ions inside and outside of a cardiac myocyte?
- What is the Nernst potential? What is an equilibrium potential?
- How does changing the concentrations of sodium, potassium, and calcium ions inside and outside the cell affect the resting membrane potential in cardiac cells?
- What is the role of the sarcolemmal Na+/K+-ATPase in the generation and maintenance of cardiac membrane potentials?
- How are calcium gradients maintained across the cardiac cell membrane?
- What are ion channels and what controls their opening and closing?
- How do changes in the relative ionic conductances of sodium, potassium, and calcium ions affect the membrane potential?
- How are cardiac action potentials different from those found in nerve cells?
- What ionic currents are responsible for non-pacemaker action potentials?
- What is the effective refractory period (ERP) for an action potential and what can cause it to lengthen or shorten?
- What ionic currents are responsible for pacemaker action potentials?
- What controls the normal rhythm of the heart?
- How do autonomic nerves, circulating catecholamines, extracellular potassium concentrations, thyroid hormone, and hypoxia alter pacemaker activity?
- What is the normal sequence and pathways for depolarization within the heart?
- How do autonomic nerves, circulating catecholamines, cellular hypoxia, and drugs blocking sodium and calcium channels alter conduction velocity within the heart?
Link to Quiz Questions: www.quizegg.com/q/56353